• Desislava Lyubomirova Stoimcheva “St. Kliment Ohridski” Sofia University, Bulgaria


games, learning environment, second language, motivation, anxiety, self esttem, preschool education


The overall objective of this study is to examine and analyze the impact of a relaxed and fun atmosphere on the second language learning. This is a mixed method research. It combines some parameters from qualitative and some from quantitative type of research.  The children were divided into two groups: experimental and control group with 16 children each. The experimental group were taught through games and the control group through books and worksheets.  After the experiment, the children from the two groups were diagnosed again with the same didactic assessment test and their results were registered and analysed. As for the qualitative data, observation was used and thus the data collection methods were observation and experiment. Additional data collection methods were didactic assessment test and statistic tests. The experiment was used a research method and all the data were statistically analysed. The preschool age is also concerned because it is an essential part of the educational process. Games and psychological factors like motivation, anxiety and self-esteem were discussed as the instruments of the affective filter that maintain fun and relaxed atmosphere in the teaching-learning process. A short theoretical and literary research was made first and then a psycho-pedagogical experiment was implemented.  The results of the experiment, with two groups of children, were analysed and compared. One group had lessons through games and one group taught through books and worksheets and a comparison was made in the input and output results. According to the findings, the game playing environment is the basic component to keep a fun and relaxed learning atmosphere. Playing games leads to higher and fruitful educational and learning outcomes.


Barna, L. (1994). Stumbling Blocks in Intercultural Communication, In: L. Samovar, R. Porter, Intercultural Communication: A Reader (7th Edition), Wadsworth Publishing, Belmont, 337-343.

Best, J. & Kahn, J. (2006). Research in education (10th edition). USA: Pearson.

Blase, J. & Blase, J. (2006). Teachers bringing out the best in teachers: A guide to peer consultation for administrators and teachers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77–101.

Carignan, N., Sanders, M., & Pourdavood, R. (2005). Racism and Ethnocentrism. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 4(3), 1.

Carlana, M. (2018). Implicit stereotypes: Evidence from teachers’ gender bias. Working Paper.

CEFR (2001) derived from on 28/05/2020.

Collier, M. (1997). Cultural identity and Intercultural Communication. In Larry A. Samovar & Richard E. Porter (eds). Intercultural Communication: A Reader. (8th ed.), (pp. 36-44). Belmont: Wadsworth Publishing Company.

Correll, J., Park, B., Judd, C., & Wittenbrink, B. (2007). The influence of stereotypes on decisions to shoot. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37(6), 1102–1117.

Cushner, K. (2009). International Perspectives on Intercultural Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Demirel, Ö. (2010). Improving Teacher Training Through Teacher Competences in Turkey, Quality Education For All Through Improving Teacher Training, UNESCO, Sofia, Paradigma Pub, 109-110.

DeWitt, S. (2003). Multicultural Democracy and Inquiry Pedagogy. Intercultural Education, 14(3), 279–290.

Doncheva, J., The consolidating function of the Bulgarian folklore games, RU ‘Angel Kanchev’ Russe, 2014, ISBN: 978-619-7071-84-9

Dulay, H., M. Burt and S. Krashen (1982): Language Two. Oxford University Press, pp 65-82.

Education and migration: Early Childhood Education and Care: Lessons from Research for Policy Makers (2009) Derived from on 26.06.2010.

Education and Training (2020), derived from on 28/05/2020.

Ernalsteen, V. (2002). Does Complex Instruction Benefit Intercultural Education? Intercultural Education, 13(1), 69–80.

European Conference of Gaine, C. & Gewirtz, S. (2008). Introduction. European Educational Research Journal, 7, 18-22.

Giurov. D. (i dr.) (2009). Giurov, D., Mreja sa interculturen dialog I obrasovanie: Turcia-Bulgaria, Narachnik sa prepodavateli, Format Vijan, Sdrujenie Predtechi, S., 2009, 443 p. Interculturno vsaimodeistvie vdetstvoto kato prioritet na evropeiskoto preduchilishtno obrasovanie, (153-170) ISBN 978-954-92309-2-5

Gurova, V. (2009).The Pedagogical Technologies of Gameplaying Interaction, Veda – Slovena, Sofia

Gurova, V., Korlarska D. (2018). Sofia, Game/Play Culture and Exploration of Cultural Competences in Early Childhood Education, (25-43), IBSN 978-954-07-4388-2

Hill, I. (2007). Multicultural and International Education: Never the Twain Shall Meet? International Review of Education, 53, 245-264.

Jackson, L. (2011). The psychology of prejudice: From attitudes to social action. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Johnson, B. & Christensen, L. (2008). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches (3rd ed.). Los Angeles: Sage.

Kleinginna, P., Jr., & Kleinginna A. (1981a). A categorized list of motivation definitions, with suggestions for a consensual definition. Motivation and Emotion, 5, 263-291.

Kleinginna, P., Jr., & Kleinginna A. (1981b). A categorized list of emotion definitions, with suggestions for a consensual definition. Motivation and Emotion, 5, 345-379.

Koleva, I. (2009). Implicitna programa za diferencirano obuchenie, Mreja sa interculturen dialog I obrasovanie: Turcia-Bulgaria, Narachnik sa studenti, Format Vijan, Sdrujenie Predtechi, S. p. (51-71), 978-975-6149-48-5

Krashen (1995). Free voluntary reading, in Eckman et al., eds., Second Language Acquisition and Pedagogy. Mahwah, N. J.: Erlbaum, pp. 187-202.

Leeman, Y. & Ledoux, G. (2005). Teacher on Intercultural Education. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 11(6), 575.

Lobb, P. (2012). Making Multicultural Education Personal. Multicultural Perspectives, 14(4), 229-233.

Lustig, M & Koester, J. (2003). Intercultural Competence: Interpersonal communication Across Cultures. (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

Marzano, R., Pickering, D., & Pollock, J. (2001). Classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.

Multicultural education & curriculum. (2012). Retrieved from

Mushi, S. (2004). Multicultural Competencies in Teaching: A Typology of Classroom Activities. Intercultural Education, 15(2), 179–194.

Official Journal (2019) derived from on 28/05/2020.

Samovar, L. & Porter, R. (1997). An introduction to intercultural communication. In L. A. Samovar & R. E. Porter (eds.). Intercultural communication: a reader. (8thed.). 5-26. Belmont, California: Wadsworth/Thomson Publishing Company.

Spencer, S., Steele, C., & Quinn, D. (1999). Stereotype threat and women’s math performance. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35, 4–28.

Spiridonova, L. (2016). Intercultural Education of Students Prepared to Be Kindergarten Teachers in Sofia University. In: R. Engels-Kritidis, B. Angelov, D. Kostrub, & Robert Osa?an (Eds.) Views of Contemporary Preschool and Primary Education in Bulgaria and Slovakia, pp. 115-132, Brno: Paido. ISBN 978-80-7315-261-1.

Stavenhagen, R. (2008) Building Intercultural Citizenship through Education: a human rights approach. European Journal of Education, 43(2), 177.

Stipek, D. (1988). Motivation to learn: From theory to practice. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:

Prentice Hall.

Stoyanova, M. (2016). Contradictory Situations as a Form of Educational Key for Competences in Childhood. In: R. Engels-Kritidis, B. Angelov, D. Kostrub, & Robert Osa?an (Eds.) Views of Contemporary Preschool and Primary Education in Bulgaria and Slovakia, pp. 323, Brno: Paido, ISBN 978-80-7315-261-1

Talib M. (2006). Diversity - A challenge for educators. Finnish Educational Research Association. Turku: Painosalama.

Witsel, M. (2003).Teaching and learning issues in the multicultural classroom. Proceedings of Effective Teaching and Learning Conference, Brisbane, 6-7 November, Griffith University, Brisbane, Qld.

Wood, W. & Eagly, A. H. (2010). Gender. In S. T. Fiske, D. T. Gilbert, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (5th ed., Vol. 1, pp. 629–667). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.

Zembylas, M. (2011). Toleration and Coexistence in Conflicting Societies: Some Tensions and Implications for Education. Pedagogy, Culture & Society, 19(3), 385–402.





Research Article